Triple Cs - Walking On Water
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Triple Cs - Walking On Water
Billions of people around the world are continuing to suffer from poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene, according to a new report by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Some 2.2 billion people around the world do not have safely managed* drinking water services, 4.2 billion people do not have safely managed sanitation services, and 3 billion lack basic** handwashing facilities.
The Joint Monitoring Programme report, Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities finds that, while significant progress has been made toward achieving universal access to basic water, sanitation and hygiene, there are huge gaps in the quality of services provided.
The report reveals that 1.8 billion people have gained access to basic drinking water services since 2000, but there are vast inequalities in the accessibility, availability and quality of these services. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people (785 million) still lack basic services, including the 144 million who drink untreated surface water. The data shows that 8 in 10 people living in rural areas lacked access to these services and in one in four countries with estimates for different wealth groups, coverage of basic services among the richest was at least twice as high as among the poorest.
Finally, the report highlights new data showing 3 billion people lack basic handwashing facilities with soap and water at home in 2017. It also shows that nearly three quarters of the population of the Least Developed Countries did not have basic handwashing facilities. Every year, 297 000 children under 5 years die due to diarrhea linked to inadequate WASH. Poor sanitation and contaminated water are also linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A, and typhoid.
*Safely managed drinking water and sanitation services: Drinking water from sources located on premises, free from contamination and available when needed, and using hygienic toilets from which wastes are treated and disposed of safely.
**Basic services: Having a protected drinking water source that takes less than thirty minutes to collect water from, using an improved toilet or latrine that does not have to be shared with other households, and having handwashing facilities with soap and water in the home.
The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring country, regional and global progress, and especially toward the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets relating to universal and equitable access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. The JMP is an authoritative source of internationally comparable estimates which reference to make policy decisions and resource allocations, especially at the international level.
Currently, water aerobics is among the aquatic programs most widely recognized by health specialists, sport professionals, and practitioners [6, 7]. This recognition could be due not only to the organic changes caused by hydrostatic pressure, buoyancy and thermodynamics but also to the variety of movements that can be carried out using the properties of water to create resistance to movement with reduced neuromuscular activity required from the antigravity muscles [6, 8]. These aspects could be used to improve the physical conditions of people with certain difficulties as well as healthy young people and adults . Studies have reported improvements in oxygen uptake [10, 11], muscle strength [12, 13] and body composition [13, 14] as a result of water aerobics participation. Nevertheless, previous discussions have noted that the exercise program should be specific enough or long enough to cause effective improvements . Studies with a short duration and lower intensities, even with experienced practitioners, have found contrary results , and further research should be developed.
The most frequently studied chronic changes during aquatic exercises are those that affect the cardiovascular system, muscle strength and body composition. These adaptations are strongly related to individual health and fitness . Exercise programs should focus on these parameters to induce favorable adaptations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and other relevant variables related to coronary artery disease . Few studies have analyzed the responses of glycemia, lipoproteins and lipids profiles to aquatic exercise, and differing results impede clear conclusions regarding this subject . Moreover, and despite the general approval by the sports and health communities, the scientific evidence is not consistent regarding the value of water aerobics for improving and/or maintaining health and physical fitness in sedentary populations and those with special needs [17, 18].
The water aerobics program enhanced the explosive strength gains in the lower and upper limbs in 10 and 11 of the 15 subjects, respectively. Most of the subjects in the Exercise showed increased endurance strength in the lower limbs (n = 11). These favorable effects on the physical condition of those who practiced a 12-week program of water aerobics can be verified in Table 1. Among these results, the significant gains in the explosive strength of the upper and lower limbs in the Exercise are worth noting (Fig 1).
Table 2 shows the values for the anthropometrics variables assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of water aerobics. When verifying the changes over the 12 weeks, no significant differences were found in the Control between the pre- and post-training moments. However, in the Exercise, there was a significant decrease in fat mass that caused a moderate decrease in body mass (Fig 2). Only five subjects in the Exercise did not lose body mass, and four of them did not decrease in fat mass.
Regarding the lipid profile, only small decreases were found in cholesterol and triglycerides in the Exercise. It is possible that the 12-week duration and/or the intensity used were not totally efficient since the positive effects of physical exercise on the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism are well known and well documented . Unfortunately, few studies have focused on the particular case of exercise in an aquatic environment. Contrary to our results, previous authors found a 4% to 6% decrease in cholesterol values [43, 44] and a 4% decrease in triglycerides  in longitudinal studies on water aerobics. Our results were not as clear as those of previous studies, possibly due to the lower intensity  and/or the shorter duration of the exercise performed . The slightly positive changes observed in the lipid profile may be the effect of the beneficial impact of physical activity not only on body mass but also on body composition , suggesting that some reductions in the lipid profile are also due to the reduction of body fat. Thus, it seems evident that the intensity and duration of aquatic activity programs might be a key determinant of their beneficial effects on lipid profiles, as is the case for body fat reduction. 59ce067264