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Nutrition And Feeding Of Organic Poultry


Commercially prepared organic feeds are available for the specific type and age of bird in production. It is important to provide the right type of feed. Feeding a layer ration, which is high in calcium and lower in protein, to young birds can cause serious health issues. Or, feeding a starter/grower feed to laying hens will drastically reduce egg production.




Nutrition and feeding of organic poultry



Organic poultry production has increased significantly in recent years to keep up with increasing consumer demand for organic eggs and meat. There are many guidelines and restrictions on what should go into the feed of organically-farmed poultry, from which difficulties arise when trying to ensure a well-balanced nutritious diet without the use of any unapproved supplements. This, the second edition of Robert Blair's classic and bestselling book on the nutrition and feeding of organic poultry, presents advice for organic producers, and the agencies and organizations serving them.


Organic poultry production has increased significantly in recent years to keep up with increasing consumer demand for organic eggs and meat. There are many guidelines and restrictions on what should go into the feedstuffs of organically farmed poultry, from which difficulties arise when trying to ensure a well-balanced nutritious diet without the use of any unapproved supplements. This, the second edition of Robert Blair's classic and bestselling book on the nutrition and feeding of organic poultry presents advice for organic producers, and the agencies and organizations serving them. It covers:- selecting suitable ingredients;- preparing appropriate feed mixtures and integrating them into organic poultry production systems;- international standards of organic feeding;- breeds that are most suitable for organic farming;- examples of diets formulated to organic standards.Completely updated and revised to address how to formulate organic diets in situations where there is a declining supply of organic feed, this new edition also includes up-to-date information on the nutritional requirements of poultry and feed-related disease incidence in organic flocks. Also including the feasibility of utilizing novel feedstuffs, such as insect meal, and their acceptability by consumers of organic meat products, this book forms a comprehensive reference for students and researchers of poultry science, organic farmers and veterinarians.


Professor Robert Blair is a recognized expert in animal nutrition and feeding, having served as a Principal Scientific Officer with the UK Agricultural Research Council; Director of Nutrition with Swift Canadian Company; Professor of Animal Science and Director, Prairie Swine Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; and Professor and Head (later Professor Emeritus), Department of Animal Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Professor Blair is a Past-President and Board Member of the World Association for Animal Production, Rome, Italy; Fellow of the Agricultural Institute of Canada; and a former Editor-in-Chief, Animal Feed Science and Technology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Currently he serves as a member of the International Expert Panel, International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems, Tjele, Denmark and as a member of the Expert Database, EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), Parma, Italy.


Organic poultry production has increased significantly in recent years to keep up with increasing consumer demand for organic eggs and meat. There are many guidelines and restrictions on what should go into the feed of organically-farmed poultry, from which difficulties arise when trying to ensure a well-balanced nutritious diet without the use of any unapproved supplements. This, the second edition of Robert Blair's classic and bestselling book on the nutrition and feeding of organic poultry, presents advice for organic producers, and the agencies and organizations serving them. It covers:- Selecting suitable ingredients.- Preparing appropriate feed mixtures and integrating them into organic poultry production systems.- International standards for organic feeding.- Breeds that are most suitable for organic farming.- Examples of diets formulated to organic standards.Completely updated and revised to address how to formulate organic diets in situations where there is a declining supply of organic feed, this new edition also includes up-to-date information on the nutritional requirements of poultry and feed-related disease incidence in organic flocks. Also including the feasibility of utilizing novel feed, such as insect meal, and their acceptability by consumers of organic meat products, this book forms a comprehensive reference for students, organic farmers, veterinarians and researchers.


Professor Robert Blair is a recognized expert in animal nutrition and feeding, having served as a Principal Scientific Officer with the UK Agricultural Research Council; Director of Nutrition with Swift Canadian Company; Professor of Animal Science and Director, Prairie Swine Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; and Professor and Head (later Professor Emeritus), Department of Animal Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Professor Blair is a Past-President and Board Member of the World Association for Animal Production, Rome, Italy; Fellow of the Agricultural Institute of Canada; and a former Editor-in-Chief , Animal Feed Science and Technology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Organic cattle farming is on the increase, with consumer demand for organic meat growing yearly. Beginning with an overview of the aims and principles behind organic cattle production, this book presents all-inclusive information about how to feed cattle so that the milk and meat produced meet organic standards, and provides a comprehensive summary of ruminant digestive processes and nutrition.Since the publication of the first edition, global consumers have increasingly become concerned with the sustainability of meat production. Here, Robert Blair considers the interrelationships of sustainable practices and profitability of organic herds, reviewing how to improve forage production and quality, and minimizing the need for supplementary feeding using off-farm ingredients. This new edition also covers:


Completely updated and revised to address how to formulate organic diets in situations where there is a declining supply of organic feed, this new edition also includes up-to-date information on the nutritional requirements of poultry and feed-related disease incidence in organic flocks. Also including the feasibility of utilizing novel feed, such as insect meal, and their acceptability by consumers of organic meat products, this book forms a comprehensive reference for students, organic farmers, veterinarians and researchers.


Because synthetic amino acids are not allowed in organic livestock production, and animal slaughter by-products cannot be used in organic feed, nutrition can present challenges in organic poultry production. Providing the amino acid methionine (MET) without oversupplying protein is generally the most difficult. Feed rations that are high in plant proteins, such as soybean meal, can be used instead of synthetic MET, but high-protein diets are not healthy for poultry or the environment. Diets containing fishmeal, milk products, and nonconventional sources of protein, such as earthworms or insects, can help provide MET, but the ingredients are expensive and, in most cases, not available in organic form. It is difficult to design diets with sufficient MET and balance of other essential amino acids.


All commercial livestock production operations, organic or otherwise, must balance product quality with production efficiency (weight gain, feed cost and efficiency, etc.) for adequate economic returns. Organic production is based on use of natural sources of plant and animal nutrition, with a few exceptions where limited quantities of synthetic substances may be used for specific purposes. One such instance is the allowed use of the synthetic form of the amino acid methionine for poultry, which may be difficult to supply naturally.


In the U.S., synthetic methionine (MET) has been the only synthetic amino acid allowed in organic livestock production, and only in poultry. When the NOP organic rule was first published in 2002, the MET allowance was to end in 2005. An extension was granted until 2008 and then again until October 2010. Finally, in 2012, a final rule was published to allow synthetic methionine to be added into feed at a level not to exceed two pounds per ton for chickens (laying hens and broilers) and three pounds for turkeys and all other poultry.


Proteins are made up of amino acids, and MET is an essential amino acid that is not synthesized in sufficient quantity by the animal and must, therefore, be supplied in the diet. Cysteine (CYS) is another amino acid related to MET metabolism, and together they are called the sulfur amino acids (see box below). Methionine can be provided as part of an intact protein or as a pure amino acid. It is the most limiting amino acid (or the most difficult one to supply) in a typical corn and soybean diet and is generally added in a pure form. The CYS requirement can be provided by MET. Most of the total sulfur amino acid requirement is met by the feedstuffs (about 75%), but the rest is normally supplemented by synthetic MET (about 25%). Synthetic MET is used in virtually all commercial poultry diets in the U.S., both conventional and organic. 041b061a72


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